Turkmenistan is the country in the Central Asia (Western part of Asia), mainly between 35º 08´N - 42º 48´N and 52º 27´E- 66º 41´E
Total area of the country is 488.100 square km. Stretching 1,100 km from Caspian Sea to hills of Badhyz and Karabil elevations (northern foothills of Paropamisus range) and 650 km from Ustyurt plateau to Kopet Dag mountains.
The geographical location is outlined by common borders with Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Iran and via Caspian Sea to Azerbaijan, Russia.
The northern and central part of the country is the domain of the Karakum desert, about 72 % of territory (350.000 km2). North-east of the country, Amudarya river is touched by Sundukli barchans (extremity of Kyzyl Kum desert). Eastern shore of Caspian Sea passing in West-Turkmen maritime lowland, and contains the alkaline lands and loose sands. Kugitangtau is the spur of Pamir – Alay mountain system, wedged in its extreme east, with the highest peak - Ayrybaba (3.139 m). Akjakaya depression, - 81 m below sea level is the lowest point in the country, in Karakum desert. The elevations changes surpasses 3200 m.
Amudarya (1415 km) is the main river in the country. Karakum canal (1375 km) starts from Amudarya and cross the country to the west, joining on the way - the rivers of Murgab (978 km), of Tedjen (1150 km), of Atrek (669 km). Forming the water supply network of the country.
Turkmenistan presidential republic is independent since October 27, 1991 (the date recently moved to Sep 27, as the new Independence Date) as the result of USSR transformation.
Geographically, being the part of Ancient Empires, this region has the old history:
- Achaemenids VI- IV c B.C
- Greeks: Alexander the Great 321 BC, then Seleucids, Greco-Bactria 256-247 B.C
- Parthians 247 B.C – 224 A.D
- Sassanians 224-651 A.D
- Arabs: Umayyad Caliphate 661 – 750 A.D & Abbasids 750 - 821 A.D
- Tahirids 821-873 A.D, Saffarids 873 A.D, then Samanids and Ghaznavids till 1040 A.D
- Seljuks till 1157 A.D
- Mongols of Genghis Khan from 1221
- Safavid dynasty from 1505 A.D
- Khanate of Khiva till 19 century
- Russian Empire from 1881 A.D, then part of Soviet Union 1918 (1925) – 1991 A.D
- Since 1991 - Now, The Independent Turkmenistan State