Sultan Palace Merv

History of Central Asia. Ancient and Middle Ages Nomadic series

Ancient:

Scythia (ancient name for nomadic people) – Eastern Iranian Scythians lived in the region of Central Eurasia, around Central Asia, parts of Eastern Europe, east of the Vistula River

Dingling / Tiele - an ancient people lived in Siberia, around I century B.C. They have been an early Proto Turkic speaking people

SakaAncient group of nomadic Iranian people, inhabited the northern and eastern Eurasian steppe and the Tarim basin

Kangju Chinese name of an ancient kingdom in Central Asia, being the second power in Transoxiana after the Yuezhi. Indo- European semi-nomadic people identical to Iranian Sogdians and other Iranian groups.

Huns Nomadic people living in Central Asia, Caucasus, Eastern Europe between IV- VI centuries A.D

Middle Ages:

Hephthalites 440 – 710 A.D Hephtalites or White Huns lived in Central Asia. Between 450-560 based in Bactria and expanded east to Tarim basin, west of Sogdia, south through Afghanistan to northern Idia

Turkic Khaganate 552-745 Gokturk Khaganate (United Celestial Turks). First Turks state used Turk name politically. Gokturks spoke old Turk but used Sogdian language for official texts and coins.

Karluks 665-744 Prominent nomadic Turkic tribal confederacy residing in the regions of Kara-Irtysh and Tarbadatai Mountains west of the Altay Mountains in Central Asia. Closely related to Uyghurs, also known as Geluolu. Karluk name come from Karluk group of Turkic languages, what also includes Uyghur, Uzbek, Ili Turki Languages.

Kimek Khanate 743-1220 Kimek-Kipchak tribes confederation, a medieval Turkic nomadic state in the area between Ob and Irtysh rivers. It was as Khaganate until Mongol conquest in the XIII century

Oghuz Yabgu State 750-1055 Turkic nomadic state formed by Oghuz Turks, geographically located between Caspian and Aral seas. Oghuz tribes spoke the Oghuz group of Turkic languages. Occupied the vast territory in Kazakhstan along Irgiz, Yaik, Emba, Uil rivers, Aral Sea, Syr Darya valley, foothills of Karatau Mountains in Tien Shan, Chui river valley. Oguz association developed in IX-X centuries in the middle and lower course of Syr Darya, modern western Kazakh steppes.

Kara-Khanid Khanate 840-1212 also known as Karakhanids, Ilek Khanids, Afrasiabids was Turkic khanate in Central Asia, to the west from Aral Sea, between IX- XIII centuries. Karakhanids titles refer to Kara Kagan as most important Turkish title up to the end if the dynasty.

Qara Khitai 1124-1218 Black Khitai (Western Liao/ remnants of Liao dynasty) was Sinicized empire in Central Asia (partly modern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan).

Mongol Empire 1206-1368 Largest contiguous land empire, stretching from estern and some parts of Central Europe to the Sea of Japan, extending into parts of the Arctic, eastward, southwest of Indian subcontinent, Mainland Southeast Asia, Iranian Plateau and westward to Levant and the Carpathian Mountains

Golden Gorde 1240-1446 Great State in Turkic, was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khaganate established in the XII century