Sultan Palace Merv

Parthian Capitals

Nisa being one of the first capitals of the young Parthian state, remains the important point at the later stages of Parthian empire. Due to the geopolitical development around its borders, it remains the communication center with the nomadic confederations of Central Asia for security of its borders and the secure trade routes passing the Parthian controlled lands. On the other hand, this region was still important to withstand the threat of Rome from the west and new threats of big nomads groups from the east.

Asaak (known also as Arshak in Astuene, supposed the crowning place of Arsaces I. Present day Iran – Kuchan area)

Dara(known also as Apavartene – rosewater, present day Dargaz area in Iran. Other names – Bavard or Abivard/ not mistaken with the site in Turkmenistan. It had rich bazaar and access to fertile lands, the city was considerably more prosperous than neighboring cities and it was the largest and most affluent city of the Great Khorasan area, in the Sasanian period)

Ctesiphon(it was founded by Mithridates I in 120 B.C, Parthian period, around 32 km from Baghdad, Mesopotamia region. City construction started in the village near the Seleucia on the Tigris. In 58 B.C it became the capital of Parthian Empire. Captured by Rome at least three times in Parthian period. It continued to be the capital of Sasanian empire. In 637 it was taken by Muslim Arabs and after the center moved in Baghdad, it became depopulated in the 8th century)

Ectabana(The ancient city, since Media times, located in Hamadan province in Iran, Zagros mountains)

Hecatompylos(Persian name Qumis, One Hunderd Gates, Parthian capital since 237 B.C, location Semnan province in Iran. Destroyed by earthquake in 856 AD)

Susa(The Ancient city of Near East, served as capital of Elam, Achaemenid and Parthian Empires, one of Sasanian centers. Abandoned in 1218, location , Zagros mountains, near Shush twon, Khuzestan province, Iran.)

Rhages(Also known as Ray or Arsacia, modern Tehran.The ancient city from Media times.)